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Table of Contents                                        

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File No. 1-13881
https://cdn.kscope.io/3d4c3ffb6618af7a398dfa0b4e61b450-MI-rgb.jpg 
MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware52-2055918
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
7750 Wisconsin AvenueBethesdaMaryland20814
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code) (301380-3000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class Trading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value MARNasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☒   No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  o    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒   No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated fileroEmerging growth companyo
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. o
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of shares of common stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2023, was $45,768,892,728.
There were 289,485,338 shares of Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding at February 6, 2024.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement prepared for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.


Table of Contents                                        
MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, INC.
FORM 10-K TABLE OF CONTENTS
FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023
 
  Page No.



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Throughout this report, we refer to Marriott International, Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries, as “we,” “us,” “Marriott,” or the “Company.” In order to make this report easier to read, we also refer throughout to (1) our Consolidated Financial Statements as our “Financial Statements,” (2) our Consolidated Statements of Income as our “Income Statements,” (3) our Consolidated Balance Sheets as our “Balance Sheets,” (4) our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows as our “Statements of Cash Flows,” (5) our properties, brands, or markets in the United States and Canada as “U.S. & Canada,” and (6) our properties, brands, or markets in our Caribbean and Latin America, Europe, Middle East and Africa, Greater China, and Asia Pacific excluding China regions, as “International.” In addition, references throughout to numbered “Notes” refer to the Notes to our Financial Statements, unless otherwise stated.
Cautionary Statement
All statements in this report are made as of the date this Form 10-K is filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise these statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. We make forward-looking statements in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and elsewhere in this report based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management and on information available to us through the date this Form 10-K is filed with the SEC. Forward-looking statements include information related to future demand trends and expectations; our expectations regarding rooms growth; our expectations regarding our ability to meet our liquidity requirements; our capital expenditures and other investment spending expectations; our expectations regarding future dividends and share repurchases; and other statements that are preceded by, followed by, or include the words “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “foresees,” or similar expressions; and similar statements concerning anticipated future events and expectations that are not historical facts.
We caution you that these statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to numerous evolving risks and uncertainties that we may not be able to accurately predict or assess, including the risks and uncertainties we describe in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this report and other factors we describe from time to time in our periodic filings with the SEC.
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PART I
Item 1.    Business.
Corporate Structure and Business
We are a worldwide operator, franchisor, and licensor of hotel, residential, timeshare, and other lodging properties under numerous brand names at different price and service points. Consistent with our focus on management, franchising, and licensing, we own or lease very few of our lodging properties (less than one percent of our system).
The following table shows our portfolio of brands at year-end 2023.
https://cdn.kscope.io/3d4c3ffb6618af7a398dfa0b4e61b450-bonvoy.jpg
We discuss our operations in the following two operating segments, both of which meet the applicable criteria for separate disclosure as a reportable business segment: (1) U.S. & Canada and (2) International. In January 2024, we modified our segment structure as a result of a change in the way management intends to evaluate results and allocate resources within the Company. Beginning with the 2024 first quarter, we will report the following four operating segments: (1) U.S. & Canada, (2) Europe, Middle East, and Africa, (3) Asia Pacific excluding China, and (4) Greater China. Our Caribbean and Latin America operating segment will not meet the applicable criteria for separate disclosure as a reportable business segment, and as such, we will include its results in “Unallocated corporate and other.” See Note 14 for more information.
Company-Operated Properties
At year-end 2023, we had 2,096 company-operated properties (589,078 rooms), which included properties under long-term management or lease agreements with property owners (management and lease agreements together, the “Operating Agreements”) and properties that we own.
Terms of our management agreements vary, but we earn a management fee that is typically composed of a base management fee, which is a percentage of the revenues of the hotel, and an incentive management fee, which is based on the profits of the hotel. Our management agreements also typically include reimbursement of costs of operations (both direct and indirect). Such agreements are generally for initial periods of 20 to 30 years, with options for us to renew for up to 10 or more additional years. Our lease agreements also vary, but may include fixed annual rentals plus additional rentals based on a specified percentage of annual revenues that exceed a fixed amount. In many jurisdictions, our Operating Agreements may be subordinated to mortgages or other liens securing indebtedness of the owners. Many of our Operating Agreements also permit the owners to terminate the agreement if we do not meet certain performance metrics, financial returns fail to meet defined levels for a period of time, and we have not cured those deficiencies. In certain circumstances, some of our management agreements allow owners to convert company-operated properties to franchised properties under our brands.
For the lodging properties we operate, we generally are responsible for hiring, training, and supervising the employees needed to operate the properties and for incurring operational and administrative costs related to the operation of the properties, and owners are required to reimburse us for those costs. We provide centralized programs and services, such as our Marriott Bonvoy loyalty program, reservations, and marketing, as well as various accounting and data processing services, and owners are required to reimburse us for those costs as well.
Franchised and Licensed Properties
We have franchising and licensing arrangements that permit property owners and operators to use many of our lodging brand names and systems. Under our hotel franchising arrangements, we generally receive an initial application fee and
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continuing royalty fees, which typically range from four to seven percent of room revenues for all brands, plus up to four percent of food and beverage revenues for certain full-service brands. Franchisees contribute to our centralized programs and services, such as our Marriott Bonvoy loyalty program, reservations, and marketing.
We also receive royalty fees under license agreements with Marriott Vacations Worldwide Corporation, our former timeshare subsidiary that we spun off in 2011, and its affiliates (collectively, “MVW”), for certain brands. The license fees we receive from MVW consist of a fixed annual fee, adjusted for inflation, plus certain variable fees based on sales volumes.
Finally, we receive royalty fees under agreements for The Ritz-Carlton Yacht Collection®.
At year-end 2023, we had 6,563 franchised and licensed properties (994,354 rooms and timeshare units).
Residential
We use or license certain of our trademarks for the sale of residential real estate, often in conjunction with hotel development. We receive one-time branding fees upon the sale of each branded residential unit by the third-party developers who construct and sell the residences, with limited amounts, if any, of our capital at risk. We also typically receive continuing management fees for managing the related homeowners’ association. At year-end 2023, we had 126 branded residential communities (13,948 residential units).
Intellectual Property
We operate in a highly competitive industry and our brand names, trademarks, service marks, trade names, and logos are very important to the development, sales and marketing of our properties and services. We believe that our brand names and other intellectual property have come to represent outstanding quality, care, service, and value to our customers, guests, and the traveling public. Accordingly, we register and protect our intellectual property where we deem appropriate and otherwise protect against its unauthorized use.
Brand Portfolio
We believe that our brand portfolio offers the most compelling range of brands and hotels in hospitality. Our brands are categorized by style of offering - Classic and Distinctive. Our Classic brands offer time-honored hospitality for the modern traveler, and our Distinctive brands offer memorable experiences with a unique perspective - each of which we group into four quality tiers: Luxury, Premium, Select, and Midscale.
Luxury offers bespoke and superb amenities and services. Our Classic Luxury brands include JW Marriott, The Ritz-Carlton, and St. Regis. Distinctive Luxury brands in our portfolio include The Luxury Collection, W Hotels, EDITION, and Bvlgari.
Premium offers sophisticated and thoughtful amenities and services. Our Classic Premium brands include Marriott Hotels, Sheraton, Delta Hotels by Marriott, Marriott Executive Apartments, and Marriott Vacation Club. Our Distinctive Premium brands include Westin, Autograph Collection Hotels, Renaissance Hotels, Le Méridien, Tribute Portfolio, Gaylord Hotels, Design Hotels, and Apartments by Marriott Bonvoy.
Select offers smart and easy amenities and services, with our longer stay brands offering amenities that mirror the comforts of home. Our Classic Select hotel brands include Courtyard, Fairfield, Residence Inn, SpringHill Suites, Four Points, TownePlace Suites, and Protea Hotels. Our Distinctive Select hotel brands include Aloft Hotels, AC Hotels by Marriott, Moxy Hotels, and Element Hotels.
Midscale offers limited services and essential amenities at a more affordable price point. Our Midscale brands, which are Classic brands, include City Express by Marriott and Four Points Express by Sheraton, which opened its first hotel in the 2024 first quarter.
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The following table shows the geographic distribution of our brands at year-end 2023:
U.S. & Canada
EuropeMiddle East & AfricaAsia Pacific Excluding China
Greater China
Caribbean & Latin AmericaTotal
Luxury
JW Marriott®
Properties35811282316121
Rooms19,2612,5234,2998,8329,2194,29648,430
The Ritz-Carlton®
Properties42121523189119
Rooms12,7872,7033,9794,5445,1592,00731,179
The Luxury Collection®
Properties17401328510113
Rooms5,4085,7562,4936,8221,4881,46123,428
W® Hotels
Properties251071111771
Rooms7,2952,1222,3162,7543,9051,75220,144
St. Regis®
Properties116131013558
Rooms2,1697683,2222,0683,46269312,382
EDITION®
Properties55332119
Rooms1,3798196384966461804,158
Bvlgari®
Properties41229
Rooms332121157201811
Premium
Marriott® Hotels
Properties3377729476532587
Rooms132,85621,9909,08314,89322,7818,461210,064
Sheraton®
Properties1685132569930436
Rooms64,92314,2799,23416,52538,7918,442152,194
Westin®
Properties134178383115243
Rooms54,8205,7872,03010,81310,3604,34788,157
Autograph Collection®
Properties153771519337304
Rooms31,32110,0102,4024,27742612,44860,884
Renaissance® Hotels
Properties8828515309175
Rooms28,0416,4911,4763,80110,7042,74553,258
Le Méridien®
Properties25162333193119
Rooms5,4895,1566,8417,7565,22556231,029
Delta Hotels by Marriott® (Delta Hotels®)
Properties9231642135
Rooms21,7305,4461,4431,52936630,514
Tribute Portfolio®
Properties662551147118
Rooms10,7253,0965841,09698664017,127
Gaylord® Hotels
Properties66
Rooms10,22010,220
Design Hotels®
Properties116586417111
Rooms1,6054,7827503897833938,702
Marriott Executive Apartments®
Properties313911238
Rooms2121,8411,2971,7352405,325
Apartments by Marriott BonvoyTM
Properties11
Rooms107107
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U.S. & CanadaEuropeMiddle East & AfricaAsia Pacific Excluding ChinaGreater ChinaCaribbean & Latin AmericaTotal
Select
Courtyard by Marriott® (Courtyard®)
Properties1,06675116053471,312
Rooms147,09113,9842,30412,10713,8657,609196,960
Fairfield by Marriott® (Fairfield®)
Properties1,1537148181,290
Rooms109,4459,5277,8342,576129,382
Residence Inn by Marriott® (Residence Inn®)
Properties8612778903
Rooms105,9113,2051,1171,213111,446
SpringHill Suites by Marriott® (SpringHill Suites®)
Properties547547
Rooms64,77464,774
Four Points by Sheraton® (Four Points®)
Properties1542021465018309
Rooms22,9653,2845,13610,79614,4592,33258,972
TownePlace Suites by Marriott® (TownePlace Suites®)
Properties503503
Rooms51,06351,063
Aloft® Hotels
Properties1621012171417232
Rooms23,4571,6692,7444,3013,2302,76938,170
AC Hotels by Marriott®
Properties1179226118236
Rooms19,38612,5292861,7751352,86736,978
Moxy® Hotels
Properties358788138
Rooms6,57216,4161,5611,49526,044
Element® Hotels
Properties83173599
Rooms11,5221601,1895721,15114,594
Protea Hotels® by Marriott
Properties16263
Rooms726,5396,611
Midscale
City Express by Marriott TM
Properties150150
Rooms17,43117,431
Residences
ResidencesProperties69111417213126
Rooms7,4165401,9692,99930272213,948
Subtotal Properties5,9657993435675254928,691
Subtotal Rooms979,631144,13174,036130,158159,87186,6591,574,486
Timeshare (1)
Properties93
Rooms22,745
Yacht (1)
Properties1
Rooms149
Total Properties8,785
Total Rooms1,597,380

(1)We exclude geographical data for Timeshare and Yacht as these offerings are captured within “Unallocated corporate and other.”
In the above table, The Luxury Collection, Autograph Collection, and Tribute Portfolio include seven total properties that we acquired when we purchased Elegant Hotels Group plc in December 2019, which we currently intend to re-brand under such brands after the completion of planned renovations.
Loyalty and Credit Card Programs
Marriott Bonvoy® is our travel loyalty program and marketplace through which members have access to our diverse brand portfolio, rich benefits, and travel experiences. Members can earn points for stays at our hotels and other lodging offerings, such as Homes & Villas by Marriott BonvoyTM, a global offering focusing on the premium and luxury tiers of rental homes, as well as through purchases with co-branded credit cards and our travel partners. Members can redeem their points for stays at most of our properties, airline tickets, airline frequent flyer program miles, rental cars, products from Marriott Bonvoy Boutiques®, and a variety of other awards, including experiences from Marriott Bonvoy Moments®. We refer to our Marriott Bonvoy loyalty program throughout this report as “Marriott Bonvoy” or our “Loyalty Program.”
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We believe that Marriott Bonvoy generates substantial repeat business that might otherwise go to competing hotels. In 2023, over 60% of our global room nights were booked by Marriott Bonvoy members. We strategically market to this large and growing guest base to generate revenue.
We have co-branded credit cards associated with Marriott Bonvoy in 11 countries. In the U.S., we have multi-year agreements with JPMorgan Chase and American Express. We also license credit card programs internationally in Japan, Canada, the United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Mexico, China, India, and Qatar. We generally earn fixed amounts that are payable at contract inception and variable amounts that are paid to us monthly over the term of the agreements primarily based on card usage. We believe that our co-branded credit cards create a diverse revenue stream for the Company, reflect the quality and value of our portfolio of brands, and contribute to the strength of Marriott Bonvoy by creating value for our customers and property owners and franchisees. Payments received under our co-branded credit card agreements represent a significant funding source for the Loyalty Program.
See the “Loyalty Program” caption in Note 2 for more information about our Loyalty Program and co-branded credit cards.
Sales and Marketing and Reservation Systems
Marriott.com, the Marriott Bonvoy mobile app, and our other digital direct channels offer seamless digital experiences that complement the experience our customers enjoy at Marriott’s extensive portfolio of properties. We deliver customer-minded enhancements, including powerful in-stay capabilities through our mobile app, such as contactless check-in and check-out, Mobile Key, chat, service requests, mobile dining, and more. In addition, we are focused on strengthening the Loyalty Program by attracting more members and localizing our experiences to reach new customers around the world. Our focus on creating frictionless experiences throughout our digital direct channels is foundational to our long-term digital and technology transformation, which aims to grow our loyal customer base and drive more direct bookings and more business to our hotels.
At year-end 2023, we operated 19 customer engagement centers, seven in the U.S. and 12 in other countries and territories. We own two of the U.S. facilities and either lease the others or share space with a company-operated property.
We believe our global sales and revenue management organizations are a key competitive advantage due to our focus on optimizing our investment in people, processes, and systems. Our above-property sales deployment strategy is designed around the way the customer wants to buy and the strategic priorities of our hotels globally. Our strategy is focused on driving efficiencies, profitable revenue, and customer loyalty by leveraging customer relationships and reducing duplication of efforts at the hotel level. We also utilize innovative and sophisticated revenue management systems, many of which are proprietary, which we believe provide a competitive advantage in pricing decisions, increasing efficiency and optimizing property-level revenue for hotels in our portfolio. Most of the hotels in our portfolio utilize web-based programs to effectively manage the rate set-up and modification processes. The use of these web-based programs provides for greater pricing flexibility, reduces time spent on rate program creation and maintenance, and increases the speed to market of new products and services.
Competition
We encounter strong competition in the short-term lodging market from large national and international chains that operate hotels or franchise their brands, unaffiliated hotels, and online platforms, including Airbnb and Vrbo, that allow travelers to book short-term rentals of homes and apartments as an alternative to hotel rooms. We compete for guests in many areas, including brand recognition and reputation, location, guest satisfaction, room rates, quality of service, amenities, quality of accommodations, safety and security, and the ability to earn and redeem loyalty program points.
Our direct digital channels also compete for guests with online travel services platforms, such as Expedia.com, Priceline.com, Booking.com, Travelocity.com, Orbitz.com, and Ctrip.com, and search engines such as Google, Bing, Yahoo, and Baidu.
Affiliation with a brand is common in the U.S. lodging industry. In 2023, approximately 72 percent of U.S. hotel rooms were brand-affiliated. Although we believe that our strong brand recognition assists us in attracting and retaining guests, owners, and franchisees, we compete against many other companies with strong brands and guest appeal, including Hilton, IHG Hotels & Resorts, Hyatt, Wyndham Hotels & Resorts, Accor, Choice Hotels, Best Western Hotels & Resorts, and others.
Outside the U.S., branding is less prevalent, and many markets are served primarily by independent operators, although branding is more common for new hotel development compared to the past. We believe that chain affiliation will continue to become more attractive in many overseas markets as local economies grow, trade barriers decline, international travel accelerates, and hotel owners seek the benefits of centralized reservation systems, marketing programs, and loyalty programs.
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Based on lodging industry data, we have an approximately 16 percent share of the U.S. hotel market and a four percent share of the hotel market outside the U.S. (based on number of rooms). We believe that our hotel brands are attractive to hotel owners seeking a management company or franchise or other licensing affiliation because our hotels typically generate higher RevPAR than our direct competitors in most market areas. We attribute this performance premium to our success in achieving and maintaining strong guest preference. We believe that the location and quality of our lodging facilities, our marketing programs, our reservation systems, our Loyalty Program, and our emphasis on guest service and guest and associate satisfaction contribute to guest preference across all our brands.
Seasonality
In general, business at our properties fluctuates moderately with the seasons. Business at some resort properties may be more seasonal depending on location.
Human Capital Management
Marriott’s long history of service, innovation, and growth is built on a culture of putting people first. We are committed to investing in our associates, with a focus on leadership development, competitive compensation, and creating a sense of well-being and belonging for all.
At year-end 2023, Marriott managed the employment of approximately 411,000 associates. This number includes 148,000 associates employed by Marriott at properties, customer care centers, and above-property operations, as well as 263,000 associates who are employed by our property owners but whose employment is managed by Marriott (which is common outside the U.S.). Approximately 117,000 of the associates employed by Marriott are located in the U.S., of which approximately 19,000 belong to labor unions. Outside the U.S., some of our associates are represented by trade unions, works councils, or employee associations. These numbers do not include hotel personnel employed by our franchisees or management companies hired by our franchisees. Marriott is committed to conducting its business in accordance with high ethical and legal standards and expects our independent franchisees to develop responsible human capital management practices.
We are focused on maintaining Marriott’s position as an employer of choice both for job seekers and our existing associates. To attract talent, we are targeting new labor pools, optimizing our recruiting practices, and sharing our story of long-term career potential. At our headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland, we utilize a hybrid work model to allow for flexibility and choice to meet the needs of our corporate workforce. For hotel-based associates, we are innovating the way hotel jobs are structured, introducing more flexibility and choice through our integrated jobs program, which allows associates to have more cross-training and engaging roles.
We encourage continual feedback from our associates at all levels. We measure associate satisfaction through our Associate Engagement Survey, which gives all associates the opportunity to provide feedback about their work experience, providing valuable insights to drive improvements in our culture. Our associate engagement scores exceeded the “Best Employer” external benchmark in 2023, and we were recognized as a top 10 company on the Fortune Best Companies to Work for in 2023, a list we have been on for 26 consecutive years.
Our human capital strategy is based on three signature elements – Growing Great Leaders, Investing in Associates, and Access to Opportunity.
Growing Great Leaders
We believe that associates at every level can inspire others through great leadership. In 2023, we launched our new Leadership Framework, designed to help us grow great leaders. It starts with leadership essentials that clearly define what great leadership means at Marriott, at all levels of the organization. We have also refreshed our leadership competencies, which have been integrated into our performance management process and leadership development programs. Our talent development strategy is designed to provide opportunities for our associates to develop and grow their careers with Marriott for the long term while driving the performance of our business.
Investing in Associates
We are focused on providing our associates with the tools, resources, and support they need to thrive – both personally and professionally. We provide our eligible U.S. associates and their families with access to comprehensive compensation and benefits offerings, such as health care coverage, work/life support benefits, and other offerings, such as a retirement savings and employee stock purchase plan. Outside the U.S., we also offer comprehensive compensation and benefit programs that vary based on the geographic market and we regularly evaluate these programs for competitiveness against the external talent market. Our TakeCare program provides associates with tools and resources to support their physical, mental, and financial
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well-being. In addition, pay equity is foundational to our compensation structures and practices. In the U.S., we conduct pay equity audits at least annually and make adjustments as needed.
Access to Opportunity
Our company-wide diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts include a range of initiatives and programs to support our goal to make all stakeholders (including associates, guests, owners, and suppliers) feel welcome and valued. The Inclusion and Social Impact Committee (“ISIC”) of our Board of Directors (“Board”), established over 20 years ago, helps drive accountability for these efforts across the Company. The ISIC assists the Board in providing oversight of the Company’s strategy, efforts, and commitments related to our people-first culture, associate well-being, inclusion, and other environmental, social and governance matters.
Sustainability and Social Impact
Guided by our 2025 sustainability and social impact goals, as well as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, we are focused on creating a positive and sustainable impact wherever we do business. Our sustainability and social impact platform, Serve 360: Doing Good in Every Direction, is built around four focus areas: Nurture Our World; Sustain Responsible Operations; Empower Through Opportunity; and Welcome All and Advance Human Rights – each with targets to drive our efforts through 2025. These targets reflect our goals to (1) support the resiliency and sustainable development of the communities and environments where we do business, (2) work to reduce our environmental impacts, design and operate sustainable hotels, and source responsibly, while mitigating climate-related risk, (3) facilitate workplace readiness and access to opportunity in our business, and (4) create a safe, welcoming world, including by working with organizations to educate and advocate on issues related to human rights throughout and beyond our business.
Our sustainability strategy and initiatives focus on a wide range of issues, including designing resource-efficient hotels, implementing technologies to track and reduce energy and water consumption, as well as waste and food waste, increasing the use of renewable energy, managing water-related risks, focusing on third-party sustainability certifications at the hotel-level, supporting innovative ecosystem restoration initiatives, focusing on responsible and local sourcing, and driving climate action.
Our climate action efforts include committing to set a near-term science-based emissions reduction target and a long-term science-based target to reach net-zero value chain greenhouse gas emissions by no later than 2050. In September 2023, we submitted our emissions reduction targets to the Science Based Targets initiative and are awaiting validation of the targets, which we expect later in 2024.
In response to humanitarian crises, like war and natural disasters, our hotels often look to support their local communities in need by donating funds, hotel stays, food, supplies, and volunteer hours. We also deploy our Marriott Disaster Relief Fund to support associates and their families impacted by crises, such as the earthquakes in Türkiye and Syria and fires in Maui, as well as charitable organizations providing relief on the ground. We also continue to focus on our efforts to advance human rights, and we have trained 1.2 million associates in human trafficking awareness between 2016 and year-end 2023. We have also donated our training program to the broader lodging industry, and the training has been completed 1.6 million times by non-Marriott individuals between 2020 and year-end 2023. Additionally, in 2023, Marriott became a member of the Internet Watch Foundation and deployed technology to block websites with illegal child sexual abuse material from guest network access in most of its U.S. & Canada hotels.
Government Regulations
As a company with global operations, we are subject to a wide variety of laws, regulations, and government policies in the U.S. and in jurisdictions around the world. Some of the regulations that most affect us include those related to employment practices; marketing and advertising efforts; trade and economic sanctions; anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and anti-money laundering; intellectual property; cybersecurity, data privacy, data localization, data transfers, and the handling of personally identifiable information; competition; climate and the environment; health and safety; liquor sales; and the offer and sale of franchises.
Internet Address and Company SEC Filings
Our primary Internet address is Marriott.com. On the investor relations portion of our website, Marriott.com/investor, we provide a link to our electronic filings with the SEC, including our annual report on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, our current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to these reports. We make all such filings available free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after filing. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with or furnish to the SEC.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.
We are subject to various risks that make an investment in our securities risky. The events and consequences discussed in these risk factors could, in circumstances we may or may not be able to accurately predict, recognize, or control, have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, these risks could cause results to differ materially from those we express in forward-looking statements contained in this report or in other Company communications. These risk factors do not identify all risks that we face, and our business could also be affected by factors, events, or uncertainties that are not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider to present significant risks to our operations.
Risks Relating to Our Industry
Our industry is highly competitive, which may impact our ability to compete successfully for guests. We operate in markets that contain many competitors. Our hotel brands and other lodging offerings generally compete with major hotel chains, regional hotel chains, independent hotels, and home sharing and rental services across national and international venues. Our ability to remain competitive and attract and retain business, group and leisure travelers depends on our success in distinguishing and driving preference for our lodging products and services, including our Loyalty Program, direct booking channels, consumer-facing technology platforms and services, our co-branded credit cards, and other offerings. If we cannot compete successfully in these areas, our business, liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Further, new lodging supply in individual markets could have a negative impact on the hotel industry and hamper our ability to maintain or increase room rates or occupancy in those markets.
Economic and other global, national, and regional conditions and events have in the past impacted, and could in the future impact, our business, financial results and growth. Because we conduct our business on a global scale, we are affected by changes in global, national, or regional economies, governmental policies (including in areas such as trade, travel, immigration, labor, healthcare, and related issues), and geopolitical, public health, social and other conditions and events. Our business, financial results and growth are impacted by weak or volatile economic conditions; pandemics and other outbreaks of disease; natural and man-made disasters; changes in energy prices, interest rates and currency values; political instability, geopolitical conflict, actual or threatened war, terrorist activity, civil unrest and other acts of violence; heightened travel security measures, travel advisories, and disruptions in air and ground travel; and concerns over the foregoing. These conditions and events have in the past materially negatively impacted, and could in the future materially negatively impact, our business, operations, and financial results in many ways, including, but not limited to, as follows:
reducing revenues at our managed and franchised hotels, owned and leased hotels, and properties in which we have an investment, potentially impacting their ability to meet expenses, including payment of amounts owed to us;
adversely affecting the value of our owned and leased properties or investments;
affecting the ability or willingness of hotel owners and franchisees to service, repay or refinance existing indebtedness or similar obligations, including loans or guaranty advances we have made to or for them;
making it more difficult for hotel owners and franchisees to obtain financing on commercially acceptable terms, or at all;
causing hotel construction and opening delays;
decreasing the rate at which new projects enter our pipeline;
causing hotels to exit our system;
increasing operating costs;
requiring us to borrow or otherwise raise a significant amount of cash in order to preserve financial flexibility, repay maturing debt and manage debt maturities;
causing the terms of our borrowing to be more expensive or more restrictive; and
adversely affecting associate hiring and retention.
The conditions and events discussed in this risk factor could also give rise to, aggravate, and impact our ability to allocate resources to mitigate the other risks that we identify below, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business, liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Relating to Our Business
Operational Risks
Premature termination of our management or franchise agreements could hurt our financial performance. Our hotel management and franchise agreements may be subject to premature termination in certain circumstances, such as the bankruptcy of a hotel owner or franchisee, the failure of a hotel owner or franchisee to comply with its payment or other obligations under the agreement, a failure under some agreements to meet specified financial or performance criteria which we do not cure, or in certain limited cases, other negotiated contractual termination rights. Property owners may assert the right to
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terminate management agreements even where the agreements provide otherwise, and some courts have upheld such assertions about our management agreements and may do so in the future. When terminations occur for certain of these or other reasons, we may need to enforce our right to damages for breach of contract and related claims, which may cause us to incur significant legal fees and expenses. We may have difficulty collecting damages from the hotel owner or franchisee, and any damages we ultimately collect could be less than the projected future value of the fees and other amounts we would have otherwise collected under the management or franchise agreement. A significant loss of these agreements could hurt our financial performance or our ability to grow our business.
Disagreements with owners of hotels that we manage or franchise may result in arbitration or litigation or delay implementation of product or service initiatives. Consistent with our focus on management and franchising, we own very few of our lodging properties. The nature of our responsibilities under our management agreements to manage each hotel and enforce the standards required for our brands under both management and franchise agreements may be subject to interpretation. This has from time to time given rise to disagreements with hotel owners and franchisees, and may give rise to such disagreements in the future, including over the need for or payment for new product, service, or systems initiatives, the timing and amount of capital investments, and reimbursement for operating costs, system costs, or other amounts. We have seen, and may in the future see, an increase in such disagreements with hotel owners and franchisees during periods when hotel returns are weaker. We seek to resolve any disagreements and to develop and maintain positive relations with current and potential hotel owners, franchisees, and real estate investment partners, but we cannot always do so. Failure to resolve such disagreements has resulted in arbitration or litigation, and could do so in the future. We could suffer significant losses, reduced profits, or constraints on our operations as the result of adverse dispute resolution outcomes.
An increase in the use of third-party Internet services to book online hotel reservations could adversely impact our business. Some of our hotel rooms are booked through Internet travel intermediaries such as Expedia.com, Priceline.com, Booking.com, Travelocity.com, Orbitz.com, and Ctrip.com, and other online travel service providers. These intermediaries initially focused on leisure travel, but now also provide offerings for corporate travel and group meetings. Although our Best Rate Guarantee and Member Rate programs have helped limit guest preference shift to intermediaries and greatly reduced the ability of intermediaries to undercut the published rates at our hotels, intermediaries continue to use a variety of aggressive online marketing methods to attract guests, including the purchase by certain companies of trademarked online keywords such as “Marriott” from Internet search engines such as Google, Bing, Yahoo, and Baidu to steer guests toward their websites. Our business and profitability could be harmed to the extent that online intermediaries succeed in significantly shifting loyalties from our lodging brands to their travel services, diverting bookings away from our direct online channels, or through their fees, increasing the overall cost of Internet bookings for our hotels. At the same time, if we are not able to negotiate new agreements on satisfactory terms when our existing contracts with intermediaries (which generally have two- to three- year terms) come up for renewal, our business and prospects could be negatively impacted in a number of ways, including by reducing bookings or making our brands less attractive to hotel owners.
Our growth strategy depends upon attracting third-party owners and franchisees to our platform, and future arrangements with these third parties may be less favorable to us, depending on the terms offered by our competitors. Adding properties to our system entails entering into and maintaining various arrangements with property owners. Our ability to attract and retain owners and franchisees and the terms of our management and franchise agreements are influenced by the needs and preferences of owners and franchisees and the offerings otherwise available to owners and franchisees in the market, among other things. We cannot assure you that any of our current arrangements will continue or that we will be able to renew agreements or enter into new agreements in the future on terms that are as favorable to us as those that exist today.
The effects of, or our failure to comply with, applicable laws, regulations and government policies may disrupt our business, lower our revenues, increase our costs, reduce our profits, limit our growth, or damage our reputation. We, the hotels that we franchise or manage, and the programs that we offer, are subject to or affected by a variety of laws, regulations and government policies around the globe, including, among others, those related to employment practices; marketing and advertising efforts; trade and economic sanctions; anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and anti-money laundering; intellectual property; cybersecurity, data privacy, data localization, data transfers, and the handling of personally identifiable information; competition; climate and the environment; health and safety; liquor sales; the offer and sale of franchises; and credit card products. These laws, regulations, and government policies may be complex and change frequently and could have a range of adverse effects on our business. The compliance programs, internal controls, and policies we maintain and enforce may need to be updated regularly to keep pace with changing laws, regulations and government policies and may not prevent our associates, contractors, or agents from materially violating applicable laws, regulations, and government policies. The requirements of applicable laws, regulations, and government policies, our failure to meet such requirements (including investigations and publicity resulting from actual or alleged failures), or actions we take to comply with such requirements or investigations could have significant adverse effects on our results of operations, reputation, or ability to grow our business.
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Exchange rate fluctuations could result in significant foreign currency gains and losses and affect our business results. We earn revenues and incur expenses in foreign currencies in connection with our operations outside of the U.S. Accordingly, fluctuations in currency exchange rates may significantly increase the amount of U.S. dollars required for foreign currency expenses or significantly decrease the U.S. dollars we receive from foreign currency revenues. We are also exposed to currency translation risk because the results of our non-U.S. business are generally reported in local currency, which we then translate to U.S. dollars for inclusion in our Financial Statements. As a result, exchange rate changes between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar affect the amounts we record for our foreign assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and could have a material negative effect on our financial results. To the extent that our international operations continue to grow, our exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations will grow. Even though we enter into foreign exchange hedging arrangements for some of the currencies in which we do business, exchange rate fluctuations could result in significant foreign currency gains and losses and affect our results. Our hedging arrangements may also create their own costs and risks, in the form of transaction costs, credit requirements, and counterparty risk.
Our business depends on the quality and reputation of our Company and our brands, and any deterioration could adversely impact our market share, reputation, business, financial condition, or results of operations. Many factors can affect the reputation and value of our Company or one or more of our properties or brands, including our ability to protect and use our brands and trademarks; our properties’ adherence to service and other brand standards; our approach to, or incidents involving, matters related to food quality and safety, guest and associate safety, health and cleanliness, sustainability and climate impact, supply chain management, inclusion and belonging, human rights, and support for local communities; and our compliance with applicable laws. Reputational value is also based on perceptions, and broad access to social media makes it easy for anyone to provide public feedback that can influence perceptions of us, our brands, and our properties, and it may be difficult to control or effectively manage negative publicity, regardless of whether it is accurate. While reputations may take decades to build, negative incidents can quickly erode trust and confidence, particularly if they result in adverse mainstream and social media publicity, governmental investigations, proceedings or penalties, or litigation. Negative incidents could lead to tangible adverse effects on our business, including lost sales, boycotts, reduced enrollment and/or participation in our Loyalty Program, loss of development opportunities, adverse government attention, adverse reaction from owners and franchisees, or associate retention and recruiting difficulties. Any material decline in the reputation or perceived quality of our brands or corporate image could affect our market share, reputation, business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Actions by our franchisees and licensees or others could adversely affect our image and reputation. We franchise and license many of our brand names and trademarks to third parties for lodging, timeshare, and residential properties, and with respect to our credit card programs and other offerings, and enter into marketing and other strategic collaborations with other companies. Under the terms of their agreements with us, these third parties interact directly with guests and others under or in connection with our brand and trade names. If these third parties fail to maintain or act in accordance with applicable brand standards; experience operational problems, including a data or privacy incident, or a circumstance involving guest or associate health or safety; or project a brand image inconsistent with ours, then our image and reputation could suffer. Although our agreements with these parties generally provide us with recourse and remedies in the event of a breach, including termination of the agreements under certain circumstances, it could be expensive or time-consuming for us to pursue such remedies and even if we are successful in pursuing such remedies, that may not be sufficient to mitigate reputational harm to us. We also cannot assure you that in every instance a court would ultimately enforce our contractual termination rights or that we could collect any awarded damages from the defaulting party.
Collective bargaining activity and strikes could materially disrupt our operations, increase our labor costs, and interfere with the ability of our management to focus on executing our business strategies. A significant number of associates at our managed, leased, and owned hotels are covered by collective bargaining agreements. If relationships with our organized associates or the unions that represent them become adverse, then the properties we operate could experience labor disruptions such as strikes, lockouts, boycotts, and public demonstrations that cause a significant impact. Numerous collective bargaining agreements are typically subject to negotiation each year, and our ability in the past to resolve such negotiations does not mean that we will be able to resolve future negotiations without significant strikes or disruptions, or on terms that we consider reasonable. Labor disputes and disruptions sometimes result in adverse publicity or regulatory investigations and adversely affect operations and revenues at affected hotels. In addition, labor disputes and disruptions or increased demands from labor unions can sometimes harm our relationship with our associates, result in increased regulatory requirements or inquiries and enforcement by governmental authorities, harm our relationships with our guests and customers, divert management attention, and reduce customer demand for our services, all of which could have a significant adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, or results of operations.
In addition, labor regulation and the negotiation of new or existing collective bargaining agreements could lead to higher wage and benefit costs, changes in work rules that raise operating expenses and legal costs, and could impose limitations on our ability or the ability of our third-party property owners to take cost saving measures during economic downturns. We do not have the ability to control the negotiations of collective bargaining agreements covering unionized labor employed by the
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operators of our franchised properties. Increased unionization of our workforce, new labor legislation, or changes in regulations could disrupt our operations, reduce our profitability, or interfere with the ability of our management to focus on executing our business strategies.
Our business could suffer if we cannot attract and retain associates or as the result of the loss of the services of our senior executives. We compete with other companies both within and outside of our industry for personnel. We have in the past experienced, and could in the future experience, challenges hiring for certain positions due to various factors, such as increasing wage expectations or competition for labor from other industries, and these circumstances could continue or worsen in the future to an extent and for durations that we are not able to predict. If we cannot recruit, train, develop, and retain sufficient numbers of associates, we could experience significant negative impacts on our operations, associate morale and turnover, guest satisfaction, or our internal control environment. Insufficient numbers of associates could also limit our ability to grow and expand our business. Labor shortages have in the past resulted, and could in the future result, in higher wages and initial hiring costs, increasing our labor costs and labor costs at our hotels, which could reduce our revenues and profits. In addition, the efforts and abilities of our senior executives are important elements of maintaining our competitive position and driving future growth, and the loss of the services of one or more of our senior executives could result in challenges executing our business strategies or other adverse effects on our business.
Extreme weather, natural disasters, climate change, and sustainability-related concerns have impacted our business in the past and could in the future have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. We are subject to the risks associated with extreme weather, natural disasters, and climate change, including the impacts of the physical effects of climate change, changes in laws and regulations related to climate change and sustainability, and changing consumer preferences. We have seen a decline in travel and reduced demand for lodging as a result of natural disasters and extreme weather in some locations where we manage, franchise, own or lease properties or in areas of the world from which we draw guests, and the prevalence and impact of these events may increase or worsen in the future. Natural disasters, extreme weather, and other physical impacts of climate change (including rising sea levels, extreme hot or cold weather, flooding, water shortages, fires, and droughts) have in the past and could in the future result in increases in related insurance, energy or other operating costs, and physical damage to our hotels that might not be covered by insurance and might prevent or limit the operations of the property. Significant costs could be involved in improving the efficiency and climate resiliency of our hotels and otherwise preparing for, responding to, and mitigating the physical effects of climate change or sustainability-related concerns. Compliance with climate-related legislation and regulation, and our efforts to achieve science-based emissions reduction targets or other sustainability initiatives, could also be complex and costly. Growing public recognition of the dangers of climate change and other sustainability-related concerns may affect customers’ travel choices, including their frequency of travel. As a result of the foregoing, we may experience reduced demand, significant increased operating and compliance costs, operating disruptions or limitations, constraints on our room growth, and physical damage to our hotels, all of which could adversely affect our profits and growth, as we have seen in the past to some extent.
Insurance may not cover damage to, or losses involving, properties that we own, manage, or franchise, or other aspects of our business, and the cost of such insurance could increase. We require comprehensive property and liability insurance policies for our managed, leased, and owned properties with coverage features and insured limits that we believe are customary. We also require our franchisees to maintain similar levels of insurance. Market forces beyond our control may nonetheless limit the scope of the insurance coverage we, our hotel owners, or our franchisees can obtain, or our or their ability to obtain coverage at reasonable rates. Certain types of losses, generally of a catastrophic nature, such as earthquakes, hurricanes and floods, terrorist acts, pandemics, or liabilities that result from incidents involving the security of information systems, may result in high deductibles, low limits, or may be uninsurable, or the cost of obtaining insurance may be unacceptably high. As a result, we, our hotel owners, and our franchisees may not be successful in obtaining insurance without increases in cost or decreases in coverage levels, or may not be successful in obtaining insurance at all. For example, over the past several years following the severe and widespread damage caused by natural disasters, coupled with continued large global losses, the property, liability, and other insurance markets have seen significant cost increases. Further, in the event of a substantial loss, the insurance coverage we, our hotel owners, or our franchisees carry may not be sufficient to pay the full market value or replacement cost of any lost investment or in some cases could result in certain losses being totally uninsured. As a result, our revenues and profits could be adversely affected, and for properties we own or lease, we could lose some or all of the capital that we have invested in the property and we could remain obligated for guarantees, debt, or other financial obligations.
If our brands, goodwill, or other intangible assets become impaired, we may be required to record significant non-cash charges to earnings. As of December 31, 2023, we had $18.1 billion of goodwill and other intangible assets. We review goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually or whenever events or circumstances indicate impairment may have occurred. Estimated fair values of our brands or reporting units could change if, for example, there are changes in the business climate, unanticipated changes in the competitive environment, adverse legal or regulatory actions or developments, changes in guests’ perception and the reputation of our brands, or changes in interest rates, operating cash flows, or market capitalization. Because of the significance of our goodwill and other intangible assets, any future impairment of these
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assets could require material non-cash charges to our results of operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our reported financial condition and results of operations.
Our Loyalty Program plays a significant role in our business and unfavorable developments affecting the program could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Our Loyalty Program is an important aspect of our business. Our Loyalty Program faces significant competition from the loyalty programs offered by other hospitality companies, as well as from loyalty programs offered by online travel platforms, bank travel programs, and others. There is significant competition among loyalty programs in terms of the value and utility of program currency, rewards ranges and values, and other terms and conditions. If we are not able to maintain a competitive and attractive loyalty program, whether because of changes we make to the program or changes that result from external factors (including changes in law or regulation), our ability to acquire, engage and retain members in our Loyalty Program and our ability to operate other programs (including our co-branded credit card program) may be adversely impacted, which could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Development and Financing Risks
Our hotel owners and franchisees depend on capital to buy, develop, and improve hotels, and they may be unable to access capital when necessary. Current and potential hotel owners and franchisees must periodically spend money to fund new hotel investments, as well as to refurbish and improve existing hotels. The availability of funds for new investments, and improvement of existing hotels by our current and potential hotel owners and franchisees depends in large measure on their ability to access the capital markets, over which we have little control. Obtaining financing on attractive terms has been, and may in the future be further, constrained by the capital markets for hotel and real estate investments.
Our ability to grow our management and franchise systems is subject to the range of risks associated with real estate investments. Our ability to sustain continued growth through management or franchise agreements for new hotels and the conversion of existing facilities to managed or franchised Marriott brands is affected, and may potentially be limited, by a variety of factors influencing real estate development generally. These include site availability, financing availability, planning, zoning and other local approvals, and other limitations that may be imposed by market and submarket factors, such as projected room occupancy and rate, changes in growth in demand compared to projected supply, territorial restrictions in our management and franchise agreements, costs of construction, demand for and availability of construction resources, and other disruptive conditions in global, regional, or local markets.
Our owned properties and other real estate investments subject us to numerous risks. We have a number of owned and leased properties and investments in joint ventures that own properties, which are each subject to the risks that generally relate to investments in real property. We may seek to sell some of these properties over time; however, equity real estate investments can be difficult to sell and we may not be able to complete assets sales at prices we find acceptable or at all. Moreover, the investment returns available from equity investments in real estate depend in large part on the amount of income earned and capital appreciation generated, if any, by the particular properties, and the expenses incurred. A variety of other factors also affect income from properties and real estate values, including local market conditions and new supply of hotels and other lodging products, availability and costs of staffing, governmental regulations, insurance, zoning, tax and eminent domain laws, interest rate levels, and the availability of financing. Our real estate investments have been, and could in the future be, impacted by any of these factors, resulting in a material adverse impact on our results of operations or financial condition. If our properties do not generate revenue sufficient to meet operating expenses and make needed capital expenditures, our income could be adversely affected, and we could be required to record additional significant non-cash impairment charges to our results of operations.
Risks associated with development and sale of residential properties associated with our lodging properties or brands may reduce our profits. We participate, through licensing agreements, in the development and sale of residential properties associated with many of our luxury and premium brands. Such projects pose further risks beyond those generally associated with our lodging business, which may reduce our profits or compromise our brand equity, including risks that: (1) changes in residential real estate demand generally may reduce our profits and could make it more difficult to convince future project developers of the value added by our brands; and (2) increases in interest rates, reductions in mortgage availability or the tax benefits of mortgage financing or residential ownership generally, or increases in the costs of residential ownership could prevent potential customers from buying residential products or reduce the prices they are willing to pay.
More hotel projects in our development pipeline may be cancelled or delayed in opening, which could adversely affect our growth prospects. We report a significant number of hotels in our development pipeline, including hotels under construction, hotels subject to signed contracts, and hotels approved for development but not yet under contract. The eventual opening of such pipeline hotels and, in particular, the approved hotels that are not yet under contract, is subject to numerous risks, including the other risks described in this section. We have seen construction timelines for pipeline hotels lengthen due to various factors, including challenges related to financing, and these circumstances could continue or worsen in the future.
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Accordingly, we cannot assure you that all of our development pipeline will result in new hotels entering our system, or that those hotels will open when we anticipate.
Losses on loans or loan guarantees that we have made to third parties impact our profits. At times, we make loans for hotel development, acquisition, or renovation expenditures when we enter into or amend management or franchise agreements. From time to time we also provide third-party lenders with financial guarantees for the timely repayment of all or a portion of debt related to hotels that we manage or franchise, generally subject to an obligation that the owner reimburse us for any fundings. We have suffered losses, and could suffer losses in the future, when hotel owners or franchisees default on loans that we provide or fail to reimburse us for loan guarantees that we have funded.
If owners of hotels that we manage or franchise cannot repay or refinance mortgage loans secured by their properties, our revenues and profits could decrease and our business could be harmed. The owners of many of our managed or franchised properties have pledged their hotels as collateral for mortgage loans that they entered into when those properties were purchased or refinanced. If those owners cannot meet required debt service payments or repay or refinance maturing indebtedness on favorable terms or at all, the lenders could declare a default, accelerate the related debt, and foreclose on the property, or the owners could declare bankruptcy, as we have seen in the past and could see in the future. In some cases, such foreclosures or bankruptcies have in the past resulted, and could in the future result, in the termination of our management or franchise agreements, eliminating our anticipated income and cash flows, which could have a significant negative effect on our results of operations.
Technology, Information Protection, and Privacy Risks
Any disruption in the functioning of our reservation, Loyalty Program, or other core operational systems could adversely affect our performance and results. In the operation of our business, we manage or use sophisticated technology and systems, including those used for our reservation, customer relationship management, analytics, revenue management, property management, human resources and payroll systems, our Loyalty Program, and technologies we make available to our guests and for our associates. The cost, speed, accuracy, and efficiency of these technologies and systems are critical aspects of our business and are important considerations for hotel owners when choosing our brands. Our business may suffer if we or our third-party service providers fail to maintain, upgrade, or prevent disruption to these systems. Disruptions in or changes to these systems, including during upgrades or replacements, could result in a disruption to our business and the loss of important data.
A failure to keep pace with developments in technology could impair our operations or competitive position. The lodging industry continues to demand the use of sophisticated technology and systems, including those used for our reservation, customer relationship management, analytics, revenue management, property management, human resources and payroll systems, our Loyalty Program, and technologies we make available to our guests and for our associates. We have underway a multi-year initiative to upgrade certain of our core technologies and systems, as these and other technologies and systems described in this risk factor must be refined, updated, and/or replaced with more advanced systems on a regular basis. Our business could suffer if we cannot refine, update, and/or replace technologies and systems as quickly or effectively as our competitors, sufficiently in advance of obsolescence or performance failure or degradation, or within budgeted costs and time frames. We also may not achieve the benefits that we anticipate from any new or upgraded technology or system, and a failure to do so could result in higher than anticipated costs or lower guest satisfaction or could impair our operating results. Our business could also suffer if the use of technologies that provide alternatives to in-person meetings and events results in a decrease in demand for our lodging properties.
We are exposed to risks and costs associated with protecting the integrity and security of Company, associate, and guest data. In the operation of our business, we collect, store, use, and transmit large volumes of personal data regarding associates, guests, customers, owners, licensees, franchisees, and our own business operations, including credit card numbers, reservation and loyalty data, and other personal data, in various information systems that we maintain and in systems maintained by third parties, including those of our owners, franchisees, licensees, service providers, and other third parties. The integrity and protection of this personal data is critical to our business. Our guests and associates also have a high expectation that we, as well as our owners, franchisees, licensees, service providers, and other third parties will adequately protect and appropriately use their personal data. The information, security, and privacy requirements imposed by global laws and governmental regulation, our contractual obligations, and the requirements of the payment card industry continue to become increasingly stringent in many jurisdictions in which we operate. Our systems and the systems maintained or used by our owners, franchisees, licensees, service providers, and other third parties may not be able to satisfy these changing legal and regulatory requirements and associate and guest expectations; we and/or these third parties may require significant additional investments or time to do so; and security controls that we and/or these third parties may implement sometimes do not operate effectively or as intended. We have incurred and may in the future incur significant additional costs to meet these requirements, obligations, and expectations, and in the event of alleged or actual noncompliance, we may experience increased operating costs, increased exposure to payment obligations and litigation, and increased risk of damage to our reputation and brand.
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The Data Security Incident, and other information security incidents, could have numerous adverse effects on our business. As a result of the data security incident involving unauthorized access to the Starwood reservations database that we disclosed in November 2018 (the “Data Security Incident”), numerous lawsuits were filed against us, as described further in Note 7. We may be named as a party in additional lawsuits and other claims may be asserted by or on behalf of guests, customers, hotel owners, stockholders, or others seeking monetary damages or other relief related to the Data Security Incident. A number of federal, state, and foreign governmental authorities made inquiries, opened investigations, or requested information and/or documents related to the Data Security Incident, including under various data protection and privacy regulations. Responding to and resolving these lawsuits, claims, and/or investigations has resulted in payments and other expenses, such as the £18.4 million payment imposed by the Information Commissioner’s Office in the United Kingdom (the “ICO”) in connection with the ICO’s final decision issued in October 2020, and could result in material additional payments or remedial or other expenses. Other governmental authorities investigating or seeking information about the Data Security Incident have imposed and may further impose undertakings, injunctive relief, consent decrees, or other civil or criminal penalties, which could, among other things, materially increase our costs or otherwise require us to alter how we operate our business. Significant management time and Company resources have been, and will continue to be, devoted to matters related to the Data Security Incident. Future publicity or developments related to the Data Security Incident, including as a result of subsequent reports or regulatory actions or developments, could have a range of other adverse effects on our business or prospects, including causing or contributing to loss of consumer confidence, reduced consumer demand, reduced enrollment and/or participation in our Loyalty Program, and associate retention and recruiting difficulties. Insurance coverage designed to limit our exposure to losses such as those related to the Data Security Incident may be costly and may not be sufficient or available to cover all of our expenses or other losses (including the final payment imposed by the ICO and any other payments, fines or penalties) related to the Data Security Incident, and certain expenses by their nature (such as, for example, expenses related to enhancing our cybersecurity program) are not covered by our insurance program.
Additional cybersecurity incidents could have adverse effects on our business. We have implemented enhanced security measures to safeguard our systems and data, and we intend to continue implementing additional measures in the future, but, as we have seen in the past, our measures may not be sufficient to maintain the confidentiality, security, or availability of the data we collect, store, and use to operate our business. Security measures implemented by our service providers or our owners, franchisees, licensees, other third parties or their service providers also may not be sufficient, as we have seen in the past. Efforts to hack or circumvent security measures, efforts to gain unauthorized access to, exploit or disrupt the operation or integrity of our data or systems, failures of systems or software to operate as designed or intended, viruses, “ransomware” or other malware, “supply chain” attacks, “phishing” or other types of business communications compromises, operator error, or inadvertent releases of data have impacted, and may in the future impact, our information systems and records or those of our owners, franchisees, licensees, service providers, or other third parties. Security measures, no matter how well designed or implemented, may only mitigate and not fully eliminate risks, and security events, when detected by security tools or third parties, may not always be immediately understood or acted upon. Our reliance on computer, Internet-based, and mobile systems and communications, and the frequency and sophistication of efforts by third parties to gain unauthorized access or prevent authorized access to such systems, have greatly increased in recent years. Our increased reliance on cloud-based services and on remote access to information systems increases the Company’s exposure to potential cybersecurity incidents. We have experienced cyberattacks, attempts to disrupt access to our systems and data, and attempts to affect the operation or integrity of our data or systems, and the frequency and sophistication of such efforts could continue to increase. Any additional significant theft of, unauthorized access to, compromise or loss of, loss of access to, or fraudulent use of guest, associate, owner, franchisee, licensee, or Company data could adversely impact our reputation and could result in legal, regulatory and other consequences, including remedial and other expenses, fines, or litigation. Depending on the nature and scope of the event, future compromises in the security of our information systems or those of our owners, franchisees, licensees, service providers, or other third parties, or other future disruptions or compromises of data or systems, could lead to future interruptions in, or other adverse effects on, the operation of our systems or those of our owners, franchisees, licensees, service providers, or other third parties. This could result in operational interruptions and/or outages and a loss of profits, as well as negative publicity and other adverse effects on our business, including lost sales, loss of consumer confidence, boycotts, reduced enrollment and/or participation in our Loyalty Program, litigation, diminished associate satisfaction, and/or retention and recruiting difficulties, all of which could materially affect our market share, reputation, business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Because we have experienced cybersecurity incidents in the past, additional incidents or the failure to detect and appropriately respond to additional incidents could magnify the severity of the adverse effects on our business. The techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage information systems change frequently, can be difficult to detect for long periods of time, and can involve difficult or prolonged assessment or remediation periods even once detected, which could also magnify the severity of these adverse effects. We cannot assure you that all potential causes of past significant incidents have been identified and remediated; additional measures may be needed to prevent significant incidents in the future. The steps we take may not be sufficient to prevent future significant incidents and as a result, such incidents may occur again. Although we carry cyber insurance that is designed to protect us against certain losses related to cyber risks, that
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insurance coverage may not be sufficient or available to cover all expenses or other losses (including payments to regulatory authorities) or all types of claims that may arise in connection with cyberattacks, security compromises, and other related incidents. Furthermore, in the future such insurance may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
Changes in privacy and data security laws could increase our operating costs and increase our exposure to payment obligations and litigation. We are subject to numerous, complex, and frequently changing laws, regulations, and contractual obligations designed to protect personal information. Various U.S. federal and state laws, data privacy and data security laws outside of the U.S., payment card industry security standards, and other information privacy and security standards are all applicable to us. Significant legislative, judicial, or regulatory changes have been and could be issued in the future. Compliance with changes in applicable data security and privacy laws and regulations and contractual obligations, including the need to respond to investigations into our compliance, has increased and may in the future increase our costs, and may restrict our business operations, increase our exposure to payment obligations and litigation in the event of alleged noncompliance, and adversely affect our reputation.
Changes in laws could adversely affect our ability to market our products effectively. We rely on a variety of direct marketing techniques, including email marketing, online advertising (including through social media), and postal mailings. Any further legal restrictions under various U.S. federal, state, or international laws, or new international, federal, or state laws on marketing and solicitation or international privacy, e-privacy, and anti-spam laws that govern these activities could adversely affect the continuing effectiveness of email, online advertising (including through social media), and postal mailing techniques and could require changes in our marketing strategy. If this occurs, we may not be able to develop adequate alternative marketing strategies, which could impact the amount and timing of our sales of certain products. We also obtain access to potential guests and customers from travel service providers or other companies with whom we have substantial relationships, and we market to some individuals on these lists directly or by including our marketing message in the other companies’ marketing materials. If access to these lists were to be prohibited or otherwise restricted, our ability to develop new guests and customers and introduce them to our products could be impaired.
Governance Risk
Delaware law and our governing corporate documents contain, and our Board of Directors could implement, anti-takeover provisions that could deter takeover attempts. Under the Delaware business combination statute, a stockholder holding 15 percent or more of our outstanding voting stock could not acquire us without Board of Directors’ consent for at least three years after the date the stockholder first held 15 percent or more of the voting stock. Our governing corporate documents also, among other things, require supermajority votes for mergers and similar transactions. In addition, our Board of Directors could, without stockholder approval, implement other anti-takeover defenses, such as a stockholder rights plan.
Item 1B.     Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 1C.     Cybersecurity.
Risk Management and Strategy
We manage risks from cybersecurity threats through our overall enterprise risk management process, which is overseen by our Board. Management has created a global information security program, which encompasses a dedicated global information security team and policies, procedures, and processes for assessing, identifying, and managing risks from cybersecurity threats. Marriott’s policies, procedures, and processes follow recognized frameworks established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) and the International Organization for Standardization, as well as other relevant standards. Our program is designed to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, security, and availability of the data that is created, collected, stored, and used to operate our business.
We assess, identify, and manage risks from cybersecurity threats through various mechanisms, which from time to time may include tabletop exercises, business unit assessments, control gap analyses, threat modeling, impact analyses, internal audits, external audits, vulnerability scans, penetration tests, and engagement of third parties to conduct analyses of our information security program. We obtain cybersecurity threat intelligence from recognized forums, third parties, and other sources as part of our risk assessment process. We also maintain a risk-based approach for assessing, identifying, and managing risks from cybersecurity threats associated with third party service providers, owners, franchisees, and other companies with whom we do business.
With respect to incident response, we maintain a Global Information Security & Privacy Incident Response Plan (“IRP”), which applies globally to information security incidents involving properties owned, leased, or managed by Marriott, as well as
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our above-property business locations. Franchisees are responsible for information security at franchised properties and the systems and business processes related to information security that are under their direction and control. Franchisees are required to comply with brand standards relating to information security, which include an obligation to report information security incidents to us.
Our IRP sets out a coordinated, multi-functional approach for investigating, containing, and mitigating incidents, including reporting findings and keeping senior management and other key stakeholders informed and involved as appropriate. In general, our incident response process follows the NIST framework and focuses on four phases: (i) preparation; (ii) detection and analysis; (iii) containment, eradication, and recovery; and (iv) post-incident remediation.
We do not believe that risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect our overall business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition over the long term. See the discussion about the Starwood Data Security Incident under the “Litigation, Claims, and Government Investigations” caption in Note 7 of our financial statements, the discussion of the same in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and the discussion of cybersecurity risk in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
Governance
Our Board has established a Technology and Information Security Oversight Committee (“TISOC”) to assist the Board in providing oversight of matters pertaining to technology, information security, and privacy, including risks from cybersecurity threats; management’s efforts to monitor and mitigate those risks; and significant cybersecurity incidents. The TISOC meets at least four times a year and typically receives quarterly reports from our Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) and other members of management. Risks from cybersecurity threats are also discussed with the full Board as part of regular legal updates and management presentations, the Board’s oversight of enterprise risk management, and periodic education sessions. The Board’s Audit Committee also receives reports regarding information security and technology-related audits conducted by our internal audit department.
To establish, implement, and evaluate our risk management policies and practices with respect to cybersecurity threats, and to facilitate the communication of such matters to the Board and to the TISOC, we have established a number of management committees, several of which include senior leaders and direct reports of the Company’s President and CEO, that serve as our policymaking and management-level governing bodies with respect to our information security and data privacy programs; oversee the implementation of our information security and data privacy risk management strategy; and identify, consider, and escalate information security and data privacy issues that may arise in our business.
Our global information security team led by our CISO works in coordination with these management committees and other cross-functional teams and is principally responsible for overseeing our information security strategy, working collaboratively with business leaders across the organization to assess, identify, and manage risks from cybersecurity threats, and to address cybersecurity incidents when they arise. Our global information security program is operated on a 24/7 basis to address risks from cybersecurity threats and to respond to cybersecurity incidents globally.
Our CISO and other members of senior management responsible for our information security program have extensive experience assessing and managing risks from cybersecurity threats, including decades of experience in information technology and information security positions; serving in information technology leadership positions at other large public companies; and having other significant experience in the areas of risk management, information technology, and information security. Our CISO has more than 26 years of experience in information technology and/or information security, including more than 12 years in such positions in the hospitality industry.
Item 2.    Properties.
Under our asset-light business model, we typically manage or franchise hotels and other lodging offerings, rather than own them. As of December 31, 2023, we owned or leased 13 hotels (4,339 rooms) in U.S. & Canada and 37 hotels (8,776 rooms) in International. Additionally, most of our regional offices, customer engagement centers, and sales offices, as well as our corporate headquarters, are in leased facilities. See Part I, Item 1, “Business,” earlier in this report, and the “Properties and Rooms” caption in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for more information about our company-operated properties.
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Item 3.     Legal Proceedings.
See the information under the “Litigation, Claims, and Government Investigations” caption in Note 7, which we incorporate here by reference. Within this section, we use a threshold of $1 million in disclosing material environmental proceedings involving a governmental authority, if any.
From time to time, we are also subject to other legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business, including adjustments proposed during governmental examinations of the various tax returns we file. While management presently believes that the ultimate outcome of these other proceedings, individually and in aggregate, will not materially harm our financial position, cash flows, or overall trends in results of operations, legal proceedings are inherently uncertain, and unfavorable rulings could, individually or in aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or operating results.
Item 4.     Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
Information about our Executive Officers
See the information under “Information about our Executive Officers” in Part III, Item 10 of this report for information about our executive officers, which we incorporate here by reference.
PART II
Item 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information
At February 6, 2024, 289,485,338 shares of our Class A Common Stock (our “common stock”) were outstanding and were held by 30,822 stockholders of record. Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol MAR.
Fourth Quarter 2023 Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
(in millions, except per share amounts)
PeriodTotal Number
of Shares
Purchased
Average Price
per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
Maximum Number of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
October 1, 2023 - October 31, 20231.5 $193.70 1.5 7.3 
November 1, 2023 - November 30, 20231.6 $202.74 1.6 30.7 
December 1, 2023 - December 31, 20231.6 $215.26 1.6 29.1 
(1)On November 10, 2022, we announced that our Board of Directors increased our common stock repurchase authorization by 25 million shares. In addition, on November 9, 2023, we announced that our Board of Directors further increased our common stock repurchase authorization by 25 million shares. At year-end 2023, 29.1 million shares remained available for repurchase under Board approved authorizations. We may repurchase shares in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, and we account for these shares as treasury stock.

Item 6.     Reserved.
Item 7.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for year-end 2022 compared to year-end 2021 can be found in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, as filed with the SEC on February 14, 2023 (“2022 Form 10-K”).
BUSINESS AND OVERVIEW
Overview
We are a worldwide operator, franchisor, and licensor of hotel, residential, timeshare, and other lodging properties in 139 countries and territories under more than 30 brand names. Under our asset-light business model, we typically manage or franchise hotels, rather than own them. We discuss our operations in the following reportable business segments: (1) U.S. & Canada and (2) International. In January 2024, we modified our segment structure as a result of a change in the way
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management intends to evaluate results and allocate resources within the Company. Beginning with the 2024 first quarter, we will report the following four operating segments: (1) U.S. & Canada, (2) Europe, Middle East, and Africa, (3) Asia Pacific excluding China, and (4) Greater China. Our Caribbean and Latin America operating segment will not meet the applicable criteria for separate disclosure as a reportable business segment, and as such, we will include its results in “Unallocated corporate and other.”
Terms of our management agreements vary, but our management fees generally consist of base management fees and incentive management fees. Base management fees are typically calculated as a percentage of property-level revenue. Incentive management fees are typically calculated as a percentage of a hotel profitability measure, and, in many cases (particularly in our U.S. & Canada, Europe, and Caribbean & Latin America regions), are subject to a specified owner return. Under our franchise agreements, franchise fees are typically calculated as a percentage of property-level revenue or a portion thereof. Additionally, we earn franchise fees for the use of our intellectual property, including primarily co-branded credit card fees, as well as timeshare and yacht fees, residential branding fees, franchise application and relicensing fees, and certain other licensing fees, which we refer to as “non-RevPAR related franchise fees.”
Performance Measures
We believe Revenue per Available Room (“RevPAR”), which we calculate by dividing room sales for comparable properties by room nights available for the period, is a meaningful indicator of our performance because it measures the period-over-period change in room revenues for comparable properties. RevPAR may not be comparable to similarly titled measures, such as revenues, and should not be viewed as necessarily correlating with our fee revenue. We also believe occupancy and average daily rate (“ADR”), which are components of calculating RevPAR, are meaningful indicators of our performance. Occupancy, which we calculate by dividing occupied rooms by total rooms available, measures the utilization of a property’s available capacity. ADR, which we calculate by dividing property room revenue by total rooms sold, measures average room price and is useful in assessing pricing levels. RevPAR, occupancy, and ADR statistics are on a systemwide basis for comparable properties, unless otherwise stated. Comparisons to prior periods are on a constant U.S. dollar basis. We calculate constant dollar statistics by applying exchange rates for the current period to the prior comparable period.
We define our comparable properties as our properties that were open and operating under one of our brands since the beginning of the last full calendar year (since January 1, 2022 for the current period) and have not, in either the current or previous year: (1) undergone significant room or public space renovations or expansions, (2) been converted between company-operated and franchised, or (3) sustained substantial property damage or business interruption. For 2023 compared to 2022, we had 5,375 comparable U.S. & Canada properties and 1,704 comparable International properties.
Business Trends
We saw strong global RevPAR improvement throughout 2023 compared to 2022. In 2023, worldwide RevPAR increased 14.9 percent compared to 2022, reflecting ADR growth of 5.8 percent and occupancy improvement of 5.5 percentage points. The increase in RevPAR was driven by improvement in all customer segments.
In the U.S. & Canada, RevPAR improved 8.9 percent in 2023 compared to 2022, driven by ADR growth of 4.7 percent and occupancy improvement of 2.7 percentage points. As we returned to more normalized year over year RevPAR comparisons during the year, RevPAR growth began to stabilize in the 2023 last three quarters.
In our International segment, RevPAR improved 32.6 percent in 2023 compared to 2022, driven by ADR growth of 9.7 percent and occupancy improvement of 11.7 percentage points. The improvement in RevPAR compared to 2022 was driven by strengthening demand, particularly in Greater China and Asia Pacific excluding China, which were impacted by COVID-19 and government-imposed travel restrictions for much or all of 2022.
Starwood Data Security Incident
On September 23, 2016, we completed the acquisition of Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, LLC, formerly known as Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. (“Starwood”), through a series of transactions, after which Starwood became an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. On November 30, 2018, we announced a data security incident involving unauthorized access to the Starwood reservations database (the “Data Security Incident”). We discontinued use of the Starwood reservations database for business operations at the end of 2018.
We are currently unable to reasonably estimate the range of total possible financial impact to the Company from the Data Security Incident in excess of the expenses already recorded. However, we do not believe this incident will impact our long-term financial health. Although our insurance program includes coverage designed to limit our exposure to losses such as those related to the Data Security Incident, that insurance may not be sufficient or available to cover all of our expenses or other
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losses (including monetary payments to regulators and/or litigants) related to the Data Security Incident. In addition, certain expenses by their nature (such as, for example, expenses related to enhancing our cybersecurity program) are not covered by our insurance program. We expect to incur ongoing legal and other expenses associated with the Data Security Incident in future periods, and we believe it is reasonably possible that we may incur additional monetary payments to regulators and/or litigants in excess of the amounts already recorded and costs in connection with compliance with any settlements or resolutions of matters. See Note 7 for additional information related to legal proceedings and governmental investigations related to the Data Security Incident.
System Growth and Pipeline
Our system grew from 8,288 properties (1,525,407 rooms) at year-end 2022 to 8,785 properties (1,597,380 rooms) at year-end 2023. The increase compared to year-end 2022 reflected gross additions of 558 properties (81,281 rooms), including 149 properties (17,300 rooms) from the City Express brand acquisition, and deletions of 63 properties (9,430 rooms). Our 2023 gross room additions included approximately 60,500 rooms located outside U.S. & Canada and roughly 16,300 rooms converted from competitor brands.
At year-end 2023, we had nearly 3,400 hotels and roughly 573,000 rooms in our development pipeline, which includes over 21,000 rooms approved for development but not yet under signed contracts. More than 232,000 rooms in the pipeline, or 41 percent, were under construction at year-end 2023, including approximately 37,000 rooms from the exclusive, long-term strategic licensing agreement with MGM Resorts International that we announced in July 2023. Over half of the rooms in our development pipeline are outside U.S. & Canada.
In 2023, we signed a record number of management, franchise and license agreements for approximately 164,000 organic rooms, of which nearly 65,000 rooms are conversions and approximately 91,000 rooms are located in the U.S. and Canada, in each case, including 37,000 rooms under our agreement with MGM Resorts International discussed above. Contracts signed in 2023 reflected the Company’s strength in the luxury tier, with 58 luxury hotel agreements signed. In 2023, we also entered the Midscale segment through the City Express brand acquisition discussed above, and announced our plans for further Midscale expansion with the launch of two new brands, Four Points Express by Sheraton and StudioRes.
In 2024, we expect net rooms growth of 5.5 to 6.0 percent, including an anticipated 2.3 percent increase as a result of the expected addition of rooms to our system under our agreement with MGM Resorts International discussed above. The first of such MGM properties joined our system in January 2024, and the remaining properties are expected to join by the end of the 2024 first quarter.
Properties and Rooms
At year-end 2023, we operated, franchised, and licensed the following properties and rooms:
 ManagedFranchised/LicensedOwned/LeasedResidentialTotal
PropertiesRoomsPropertiesRoomsPropertiesRoomsPropertiesRoomsPropertiesRooms
U.S. & Canada624 215,246 5,259 752,630 13 4,339 69 7,416 5,965 979,631 
International1,422 360,717 1,210 218,830 37 8,776 57 6,532 2,726 594,855 
Timeshare— — 93 22,745 — — — — 93 22,745 
Yacht— — 149 — — — — 149 
Total2,046 575,963 6,563 994,354 50 13,115 126 13,948 8,785 1,597,380 
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Lodging Statistics
The following table presents RevPAR, occupancy, and ADR statistics for comparable properties for 2023, and 2023 compared to 2022. Systemwide statistics include data from our franchised properties, in addition to our company-operated properties.
RevPAROccupancyAverage Daily Rate
2023vs. 20222023vs. 20222023vs. 2022
Comparable Company-Operated Properties
U.S. & Canada
$171.81 10.2 %68.9 %3.7 %pts.$249.25 4.3 %
Greater China$88.18 80.3 %68.9 %22.4 %pts.$128.03 21.7 %
Asia Pacific excluding China$117.33 41.9 %69.5 %11.5 %pts.$168.86 18.4 %
Caribbean & Latin America$168.44 13.8 %64.0 %4.4 %pts.$263.19 6.0 %
Europe$183.67 21.2 %70.7 %7.7 %pts.$259.65 8.0 %
Middle East & Africa$128.99 12.5 %67.6 %3.2 %pts.$190.71 7.2 %
International - All (1)
$120.78 35.6 %68.8 %13.1 %pts.$175.62 9.7 %
Worldwide (2)
$142.69 21.2 %68.8 %9.1 %pts.$207.27 5.1 %
Comparable Systemwide Properties
U.S. & Canada
$128.25 8.9 %69.8 %2.7 %pts.$183.83 4.7 %
Greater China$82.77 78.6 %67.9 %22.2 %pts.$121.91 20.2 %
Asia Pacific excluding China$117.89 43.2 %69.4 %10.9 %pts.$169.93 20.7 %
Caribbean & Latin America$142.85 13.9 %64.7 %4.2 %pts.$220.73 6.5 %
Europe$142.88 21.8 %68.7 %8.3 %pts.$207.86 7.2 %
Middle East & Africa$120.67 14.7 %66.6 %2.9 %pts.$181.18 9.7 %
International - All (1)
$116.81 32.6 %67.9 %11.7 %pts.$172.05 9.7 %
Worldwide (2)
$124.70 14.9 %69.2 %5.5 %pts.$180.24 5.8 %

(1)Includes Greater China, Asia Pacific excluding China, Caribbean & Latin America, Europe, and Middle East & Africa.
(2)Includes U.S. & Canada and International - All.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS
The discussion below presents an analysis of our consolidated results of operations for 2023 compared to 2022. Also see the “Business Trends” section above for further discussion.
Fee Revenues
($ in millions)
20232022Change 2023 vs. 2022
Base management fees$1,238 $1,044 $194 19 %
Franchise fees2,831 2,505 326 13 %
Incentive management fees755 529 226 43 %
Gross fee revenues4,824 4,078 746 18 %
Contract investment amortization(88)(89)%
Net fee revenues$4,736 $3,989 $747 19 %
The increase in base management fees primarily reflected higher RevPAR and unit growth.
The increase in franchise fees primarily reflected higher RevPAR, unit growth ($99 million), and higher non-RevPAR related franchise fees ($50 million). Non-RevPAR related franchise fees of $832 million in 2023 increased primarily due to higher co-branded credit card fees ($55 million).
The increase in incentive management fees primarily reflected higher profits at many managed hotels. In 2023, we earned incentive management fees from 68 percent of our managed properties worldwide, compared to 61 percent in 2022. We earned incentive management fees from 31 percent of our U.S. & Canada managed properties and 85 percent of our International managed properties in 2023, compared to 29 percent in U.S. & Canada and 76 percent in International in 2022. In addition, 65 percent of our total incentive management fees in 2023 came from our International managed properties versus 58 percent in 2022.
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Owned, Leased, and Other
($ in millions)
20232022Change 2023 vs. 2022
Owned, leased, and other revenue$1,564 $1,367 $197 14 %
Owned, leased, and other - direct expenses1,165 1,074 91 %
Owned, leased, and other, net$399 $293 $106 36 %
Owned, leased, and other revenue, net of direct expenses, increased primarily due to stronger results at our owned and leased properties, $46 million of higher termination fees, primarily related to one development project in U.S. & Canada, and an estimated monetary payment of $31 million recorded in 2022 related to a portfolio of 12 leased hotels in the U.S. & Canada, partially offset by $29 million of subsidies received in 2022 for certain of our leased hotels under German government COVID-19 assistance programs.
Cost Reimbursements
($ in millions)
20232022Change 2023 vs. 2022
Cost reimbursement revenue$17,413 $15,417 $1,996 13 %
Reimbursed expenses17,424 15,141 2,283 15 %
Cost reimbursements, net$(11)$276 $(287)(104)%
Cost reimbursements, net (cost reimbursement revenue, net of reimbursed expenses) varies due to timing differences between the costs we incur for centralized programs and services and the related reimbursements we receive from property owners and franchisees. Over the long term, our centralized programs and services are not designed to impact our economics, either positively or negatively. See Note 2 for more information about the accounting for cost reimbursements, including our Loyalty Program.
The decrease in cost reimbursements, net primarily reflected Loyalty Program activity, primarily due to lower program revenues and higher program expenses, higher expenses related to our insurance program, and higher marketing expenses.
Other Operating Expenses
($ in millions)
20232022Change 2023 vs. 2022
Depreciation, amortization, and other$189 $193 $(4)(2)%
General, administrative, and other1,011 891 120 13 %
Merger-related charges and other60 12 48 400 %
General, administrative, and other expenses increased primarily due to higher administrative and compensation costs and higher litigation accruals.
Merger-related charges and other expenses increased primarily due to the Data Security Incident discussed in Note 7.
Non-Operating Income (Expense)
($ in millions)
20232022Change 2023 vs. 2022
Gains and other income, net$40 $11 $29 264 %
Interest expense(565)(403)(162)(40)%
Interest income30 26 15 %
Equity in earnings
18 (9)(50)%
Gains and other income, net increased primarily due to a gain on the sale of a hotel in the Caribbean & Latin America region ($24 million).
Interest expense increased primarily due to higher commercial paper borrowings and interest rates ($71 million), higher debt balances driven by Senior Notes issuances, net of maturities ($70 million), and higher interest rates on floating rate debt, including the effect of interest rate swaps ($19 million).
Equity in earnings decreased primarily due to gains recorded in the prior year on the sale of properties held by equity method investees ($23 million).
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Income Taxes
($ in millions)
20232022Change 2023 vs. 2022
Provision for income taxes
$(295)$(756)$461 61 %
Our tax provision decreased in 2023, compared to our tax provision in 2022, primarily due to intellectual property restructuring transactions completed during 2023 resulting in non-U.S. tax benefits ($228 million), the release of a tax valuation allowance as the Company concluded it is more likely than not to recognize non U.S. tax benefits ($223 million), and the current year release of tax reserves ($103 million), which was mostly due to the completion of a prior year tax audit. The decrease was partially offset by the increase in operating income ($61 million).
BUSINESS SEGMENTS
The following discussion presents an analysis of the operating results of our reportable business segments. Also see the “Business Trends” section above for further discussion.
($ in millions)
20232022Change 2023 vs. 2022
U.S. & Canada
Segment revenues$17,696 $15,753 $1,943 12 %
Segment profit2,724 2,446 278 11 %
International
Segment revenues4,455 3,486 969 28 %
Segment profit1,121 794 327 41 %
PropertiesRooms
December 31, 2023December 31, 2022vs. December 31, 2022December 31, 2023December 31, 2022vs. December 31, 2022
U.S. & Canada
5,965 5,846 119 %979,631 964,412 15,219 %
International
2,726 2,348 378 16 %594,855 538,101 56,754 11 %
U.S. & Canada
U.S. & Canada segment profit increased primarily due to the following:
$313 million of higher gross fee revenues, primarily reflecting higher RevPAR driven by increases in both ADR and occupancy, unit growth, and higher profits at certain managed hotels; and
$73 million of higher owned, leased, and other revenue, net of direct expenses, primarily reflecting $57 million of higher termination fees, primarily related to one development project, and a $31 million estimated monetary payment recorded in 2022 related to a portfolio of 12 leased hotels;
partially offset by:
$77 million of lower cost reimbursement revenue, net of reimbursed expenses.
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International
International segment profit increased primarily due to the following:
$373 million of higher gross fee revenues, primarily reflecting higher profits at certain managed hotels, higher RevPAR driven by increases in both occupancy and ADR in all regions, and unit growth, partially offset by net unfavorable foreign exchange rates;
$24 million of higher gains and other income, net, primarily reflecting a gain on the sale of a hotel in the Caribbean & Latin America region ($24 million); and
$3 million of higher owned, leased, and other revenue, net of direct expenses, primarily reflecting stronger results at our owned and leased properties ($43 million), partially offset by subsidies received in 2022 for certain of our leased hotels under German government COVID-19 assistance programs ($29 million);
partially offset by:
$32 million of lower cost reimbursement revenue, net of reimbursed expenses; and
$55 million of higher general, administrative, and other expenses, primarily reflecting higher litigation accruals and higher compensation costs.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our Credit Facility
We are party to a $4.5 billion multicurrency revolving credit agreement (the “Credit Facility”). Available borrowings under the Credit Facility support our commercial paper program and general corporate needs. Borrowings under the Credit Facility generally bear interest at SOFR (the Secured Overnight Financing Rate) plus a spread based on our public debt rating. We also pay quarterly fees on the Credit Facility at a rate based on our public debt rating. We classify outstanding borrowings under the Credit Facility and outstanding commercial paper borrowings (which generally have short-term maturities of 45 days or less) as long-term based on our ability and intent to refinance the outstanding borrowings on a long-term basis. The Credit Facility expires on December 14, 2027.
The Credit Facility contains certain covenants, including a single financial covenant that limits our maximum leverage (consisting of the ratio of Adjusted Total Debt to EBITDA, each as defined in the Credit Facility) to not more than 4.5 to 1.0. Our outstanding public debt does not contain a corresponding financial covenant or a requirement that we maintain certain financial ratios. We currently satisfy the covenants in our Credit Facility and public debt instruments, including the leverage covenant under the Credit Facility, and do not expect the covenants will restrict our ability to meet our anticipated borrowing and liquidity needs.
We monitor the status of the capital markets and regularly evaluate the effect that changes in capital market conditions may have on our ability to fund our liquidity needs. We believe the Credit Facility, and our access to capital markets, together with cash we expect to generate from operations, remain adequate to meet our liquidity requirements.
Commercial Paper
We issue commercial paper in the U.S. Because we do not have purchase commitments from buyers for our commercial paper, our ability to issue commercial paper is subject to market demand. We do not expect that fluctuations in the demand for commercial paper will affect our liquidity, given our borrowing capacity under the Credit Facility and access to capital markets.
Cash from Operations
Net cash provided by operating activities increased by $807 million in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to higher net income (adjusted for non-cash items), working capital changes driven by accounts receivable timing, and higher cash generated by our Loyalty Program, partially offset by higher cash paid for income taxes. Cash inflow from our Loyalty Program in 2020 included $920 million of cash received from the prepayment of certain future revenues under the 2020 amendments to our existing U.S.-issued co-branded credit card agreements, which reduced the amount of cash we received from these card issuers in subsequent years, until such reductions ended as of year-end 2023.
Our ratio of current assets to current liabilities was 0.4 to 1.0 at year-end 2023 and 0.5 to 1.0 at year-end 2022. We have significant borrowing capacity under our Credit Facility should we need additional working capital.
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Investing Activities Cash Flows
Capital Expenditures and Other Investments. We made capital and technology expenditures of $452 million in 2023 and $332 million in 2022. Capital and technology expenditures in 2023 increased by $120 million compared to 2022, primarily due to higher spending on our worldwide technology systems transformation, the overwhelming portion of which is expected to be reimbursed over time. We also had cash outflows of $101 million in 2023 due to the City Express brand acquisition, which we discuss in Note 3.
We expect capital expenditures and other investments will total approximately $1.0 billion to $1.2 billion for 2024, including capital and technology expenditures, loan advances, contract acquisition costs, and other investing activities (including approximately $250 million for maintenance capital spending). Our anticipated capital and technology expenditures include $200 million of spending related to our option to purchase the land underlying the Sheraton Grand Chicago, which we discuss in Note 7.
Dispositions. Property and asset sales generated $71 million of cash proceeds in 2023 and $1 million in 2022.
Over time, we have sold lodging properties, both completed and under development, generally subject to long-term management agreements. The ability of third-party purchasers to raise the debt and equity capital necessary to acquire such properties depends in part on the perceived risks in the lodging industry and other constraints inherent in the capital markets. We monitor the status of the capital markets and regularly evaluate the potential impact of changes in capital market conditions on our business operations. We have made, and expect to continue making, selective and opportunistic investments to add units to our lodging business, which may include property acquisitions and renovations, new construction, loans, guarantees, and equity investments. Over time, we seek to minimize capital invested in our business through asset sales subject to long-term management or franchise agreements.
Loan Activity. From time to time, we make loans to owners of hotels that we operate or franchise. Loan advances, net of loan collections, amounted to $16 million in 2023, compared to net collections of $3 million in 2022. At year-end 2023, we had $169 million of loans outstanding, compared to $162 million outstanding at year-end 2022.
Financing Activities Cash Flows
Debt. Debt increased by $1,809 million in 2023, to $11,873 million at year-end 2023 from $10,064 million at year-end 2022, primarily due to the issuance of our Series LL Notes and Series MM Notes ($1,135 million) and Series KK Notes ($783 million), and higher outstanding commercial paper borrowings ($546 million), partially offset by the maturity of our Series Z Notes and Series U Notes ($350 million and $291 million, respectively). See Note 9 for additional information on Senior Notes issuances.
Our long-term financial objectives include maintaining diversified financing sources, optimizing the mix and maturity of our long-term debt, and reducing our working capital. At year-end 2023, our long-term debt had a weighted average interest rate of 4.5 percent and a weighted average maturity of approximately 5.0 years. Including the effect of interest rate swaps, the ratio of our fixed-rate long-term debt to our total long-term debt was 0.8 to 1.0 at year-end 2023.
See the “Our Credit Facility” caption in this “Liquidity and Capital Resources” section for more information on our Credit Facility.
Share Repurchases and Dividends. We repurchased 21.5 million shares of our common stock for $3.9 billion in 2023. Year-to-date through February 9, 2024, we repurchased 1.3 million shares for $300 million. For additional information, see “Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities” in Part II, Item 5.
Our Board declared the following quarterly cash dividends in 2023: (1) $0.40 per share declared on February 10, 2023 and paid on March 31, 2023 to stockholders of record on February 24, 2023; (2) $0.52 per share declared on May 12, 2023 and paid on June 30, 2023 to stockholders of record on May 26, 2023; (3) $0.52 per share declared on August 3, 2023 and paid on September 29, 2023 to stockholders of record on August 17, 2023; and (4) $0.52 per share declared on November 9, 2023 and paid on December 29, 2023 to stockholders of record on November 22, 2023. Our Board declared a cash dividend of $0.52 per share on February 8, 2024, payable on March 29, 2024 to stockholders of record on February 22, 2024.
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We expect to continue to return cash to stockholders through a combination of share repurchases and cash dividends.
Material Cash Requirements
Our material cash requirements include the following contractual obligations and off-balance sheet arrangements.
At year-end 2023, we had $13,937 million of debt, including principal and future interest payments, of which $972 million is payable within the next 12 months from year-end 2023. See Note 9 for further information about our long-term debt.
We enter into operating and finance leases primarily for hotels, offices, and equipment, which are discussed in Note 8.
At December 31, 2023, projected Deemed Repatriation Transition Tax payments under the U.S. tax legislation enacted on December 22, 2017, commonly referred to as the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, totaled $243 million, of which $108 million is payable within the next 12 months from year-end 2023.
The Company also had guarantees, a contingent purchase obligation, commitments, and letters of credit as of year-end 2023, which are discussed in Note 7. With the exception of the Sheraton Grand Chicago put option discussed in Note 7, the majority of our remaining guarantee commitments are not expected to be funded within the next 12 months from year-end 2023. In addition to the purchase obligations discussed in Note 7, in the normal course of business, we enter into purchase commitments and incur other obligations to manage the daily operating needs of the hotels that we manage. Since our contracts with owners require reimbursement for these amounts, these obligations are expected to have minimal impact on our net income and cash flow.
NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
We do not expect that accounting standard updates issued to date and that are effective after December 31, 2023 will have a material effect on our Financial Statements.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
Our preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts and related disclosures. Management considers an accounting policy and estimate to be critical if: (1) we must make assumptions that were uncertain when the estimate was made; and (2) changes in the estimate, or selection of a different estimate methodology could have a material effect on our consolidated results of operations or financial condition.
While we believe that our estimates, assumptions, and judgments are reasonable, they are based on information available when the estimate or assumption was made. Actual results may differ significantly. Additionally, changes in our assumptions, estimates or assessments due to unforeseen events or otherwise could have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations.
See Note 2 for further information related to our critical accounting policies and estimates, which are as follows:
Loyalty Program, including how we estimate the breakage of hotel points, credit card points, and free night certificates, the volume of points and free night certificates that will be issued under our co-branded credit card agreements, the amount of consideration to which we will be entitled under our co-branded credit card agreements, and the stand-alone selling prices of goods and services provided under our co-branded credit card agreements. Changes in these estimates could result in material changes to our liability for guest loyalty program and Loyalty Program revenue. Based on the conditions existing at December 31, 2023 and holding other factors constant, a one percent decrease in our estimate of the breakage of points could result in an increase in the liability for guest loyalty program of approximately $50 million. The breakage impact may vary significantly depending on the specific Loyalty Program points for which the anticipated breakage changes.
Goodwill, including how we evaluate the fair value of reporting units and when we record an impairment loss on goodwill. During the 2023 fourth quarter, we conducted our annual goodwill impairment test, and no impairment charges were recorded. The estimated fair values of all our reporting units significantly exceeded their carrying amounts at the date of their most recent estimated fair value determination.
Intangibles and Long-Lived Assets, including how we evaluate the fair value of intangibles and long-lived assets and when we record impairment losses on intangibles and long-lived assets. During 2023, we evaluated our intangibles and long-lived asset groups for impairment and did not record any material impairment charges. The estimated fair values
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of all our indefinite-lived intangible assets significantly exceeded their carrying amounts at the date of their most recent estimated fair value determination.
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
We are exposed to market risk primarily from changes in interest rates and currency exchange rates. We manage our exposure to these risks by monitoring available financing alternatives, through the development and application of credit granting policies, and by entering into derivative arrangements. We do not foresee any significant changes in either our exposure to fluctuations in interest rates or currency rates or how we manage such exposure in the future.
We use derivative instruments, including cash flow hedges, fair value hedges, net investment in non-U.S. operations hedges, and other derivative instruments, as part of our overall strategy to manage our exposure to market risks associated with fluctuations in interest rates and currency exchange rates. We continue to have exposure to such risks to the extent they are not hedged. See Note 2 for more information on derivative instruments. We use forward contracts not designated as hedging instruments to manage currency exchange rate risk associated with certain cash and intercompany loan balances. We intend to offset the gains and losses related to these forward contracts with the gains and losses related to the remeasurement of our cash and intercompany loan balances, such that there is a negligible effect on earnings. We do not consider the fair value or earnings impact of these forward contracts to be material to our consolidated financial statements.
We are exposed to interest rate risk on our floating-rate notes receivable and floating-rate debt, including the effect of interest rate swaps. Changes in interest rates also impact the fair value of our fixed-rate notes receivable and the fair value of our fixed-rate long-term debt.
The following table sets forth the scheduled maturities and the total fair value as of year-end 2023 for our financial instruments that are impacted by interest rate risk:
 Maturities by Period
(in millions)
20242025202620272028There-
after
Total
Carrying
Amount
Total
Fair
Value
Assets - Maturities represent expected principal receipts. Fair values represent assets.
Fixed-rate notes receivable$23 $$$$$15 $57 $53 
Average interest rate1.09 %
Floating-rate notes receivable$$73 $$— $20 $$112 $109 
Average interest rate6.60 %
Liabilities - Maturities represent expected principal payments. Fair values represent liabilities.
Fixed-rate debt$— $(1,301)$(1,192)$(987)$(1,435)$(4,861)$(9,776)$(9,445)
Average interest rate4.20 %
Floating-rate debt$(545)$— $— $(1,421)$— $— $(1,966)$(1,966)
Average interest rate6.06 %


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Item 8.    Financial Statements.
The following financial information is included on the pages indicated:
 
Page


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MANAGEMENT’S REPORT ON
INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING

Management of Marriott International, Inc. (the “Company”) is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting and for assessing the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. The Company has designed its internal control over financial reporting to provide reasonable assurance on the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

The Company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that: (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the Company’s transactions and dispositions of the Company’s assets; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of the Company’s management and directors; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.

Because of inherent limitations in internal control over financial reporting, such controls may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of the effectiveness of internal controls to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

In connection with the preparation of the Company’s annual consolidated financial statements, management assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in the Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 Framework) (the “COSO criteria”).

Based on this assessment, management has concluded that, applying the COSO criteria, as of December 31, 2023, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective to provide reasonable assurance of the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

Ernst & Young LLP (PCAOB ID: 42), the independent registered public accounting firm that audited the Company’s consolidated financial statements included in this report, has issued an attestation report on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting, a copy of which appears on the following page.
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Marriott International, Inc.

Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited Marriott International, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 Framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Marriott International, Inc. (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on the COSO criteria.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders’ (deficit) equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes, and our report dated February 13, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

Tysons, Virginia
February 13, 2024
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Marriott International, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Marriott International, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2023, and 2022, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders’ (deficit) equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 Framework) and our report dated February 13, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
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Accounting for the Loyalty Program
Description of the Matter
During 2023 the Company recognized $2,798 million of revenues previously deferred as of December 31, 2022, and had deferred revenue of $7,006 million as of December 31, 2023 associated with the Marriott Bonvoy guest loyalty program (the “Loyalty Program”). As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, the Company recognizes revenue for performance obligations relating to Loyalty Program points and free night certificates as they are redeemed and the related performance obligations are satisfied. The Company recognizes a portion of revenue for the Licensed IP performance obligation under the sales-based royalty criteria, with the remaining portion recognized on a straight-line basis over the contract term. Revenue is recognized utilizing complex models based upon the estimated standalone selling price per point and per free night certificate, which includes judgment in making the estimates of variable consideration and breakage of points.
Auditing Loyalty Program results is complex due to: (1) the complexity of models and high volume of data used to monitor and account for Loyalty Program results and (2) the complexity and judgment of estimating the standalone selling price per Loyalty Program point, including both the estimate of variable consideration under the Company’s co-branded credit card agreements which has significant estimation uncertainty associated with projecting future cardholder spending and redemption activity, and the estimated breakage of Loyalty Program points which requires the use of specialists.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s process of accounting for the Loyalty Program. For example, we tested controls over the accounting methods and model used in reporting results of the Loyalty Program, management’s review of the assumptions and data inputs utilized in estimating the standalone selling price per Loyalty Program point, as well as the development of the estimated breakage.
To test the recognition of revenues and costs associated with the Loyalty Program, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, testing the clerical accuracy and consistency with US GAAP of the accounting model developed by the Company to recognize revenue and costs associated with the Loyalty Program, and testing significant inputs into the accounting model, including the estimated standalone selling price and recognition of points earned and redeemed during the period. We involved our actuarial professionals to assist in our testing procedures with respect to the estimate of the breakage of Loyalty Program points. We evaluated management’s methodology for estimating the breakage of Loyalty Program points, and we tested underlying data and actuarial assumptions used in estimating the breakage. We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s assumptions, including projections of cash flows, used to estimate variable consideration under the Company’s co-branded credit cards.
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Accounting for General and Administrative Expenses and Reimbursed Expenses
Description of the Matter
During 2023 the Company recognized $1,011 million of general and administrative expenses and $17,424 million of reimbursed expenses. As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, the Company incurs certain expenses that are for the benefit of, and reimbursable from, hotel owners and franchisees. Such amounts are recorded in the period in which the expense is incurred and include judgment with respect to the allocation of certain costs between general and administrative expenses, which are non-reimbursable, and reimbursed expenses.
Auditing the classification of general and administrative expenses and reimbursed expenses is complex due to: (1) judgment associated with testing management’s conclusions regarding the allocation of costs between reimbursable and non-reimbursable expenses and (2) incentives within management’s compensation structure designed to achieve certain financial targets that exclude the impact of reimbursed expenses.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s process of accounting for reimbursed expenses, general and administrative expenses, and the process for allocating expenses. For example, we tested management’s controls over the review of the allocation of certain costs to determine if they were reasonably classified.
To test the recognition of reimbursed expenses for appropriate classification, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, (1) testing manual journal entries made to reimbursed expenses and general and administrative expenses and (2) performing analytical procedures over total reimbursed expenses and general and administrative expenses in order to identify any trends or indicators of material errors in the classification of expenses.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2002.

Tysons, Virginia
February 13, 2024
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MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
Fiscal Years 2023, 2022, and 2021
(in millions, except per share amounts)
 202320222021
REVENUES
Base management fees$1,238 $1,044 $669 
Franchise fees2,831 2,505 1,790 
Incentive management fees755 529 235 
Gross fee revenues4,824 4,078 2,694 
Contract investment amortization(88)(89)(75)
Net fee revenues4,736 3,989 2,619 
Owned, leased, and other revenue1,564 1,367 796 
Cost reimbursement revenue (1)
17,413 15,417 10,442 
23,713 20,773 13,857 
OPERATING COSTS AND EXPENSES
Owned, leased, and other - direct
1,165 1,074 734 
Depreciation, amortization, and other189 193 220 
General, administrative, and other1,011 891 823 
Merger-related charges and other
60 12 8 
Reimbursed expenses (1)
17,424 15,141 10,322 
19,849 17,311 12,107 
OPERATING INCOME3,864 3,462 1,750 
Gains and other income, net40 11 10 
Loss on extinguishment of debt  (164)
Interest expense(565)(403)(420)
Interest income30 26 28 
Equity in earnings (losses) (1)
9 18 (24)
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES3,378 3,114 1,180 
Provision for income taxes
(295)(756)(81)
NET INCOME$3,083 $2,358 $1,099 
EARNINGS PER SHARE
Earnings per share – basic$10.23 $7.27 $3.36 
Earnings per share – diluted$10.18 $7.24 $3.34 
(1)See Note 15 for disclosure of related party amounts.
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Fiscal Years 2023, 2022, and 2021
(in millions)
 202320222021
Net income$3,083 $2,358 $1,099 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
Foreign currency translation adjustments86 (389)(212)
Other adjustments, net of tax(4)2 5 
Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax82 (387)(207)
Comprehensive income$3,165 $1,971 $892 

See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

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MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
Fiscal Years-Ended 2023 and 2022
(in millions)
December 31,
2023
December 31,
2022
ASSETS
Current assets
Cash and equivalents$338 $507 
Accounts and notes receivable, net2,712 2,571 
Prepaid expenses and other261 235 
3,311 3,313 
Property and equipment, net1,581 1,585 
Intangible assets
Brands5,907 5,812 
Contract acquisition costs and other3,283 2,935 
Goodwill8,886 8,872 
18,076 17,619 
Equity method investments308 335 
Notes receivable, net138 152 
Deferred tax assets673 240 
Operating lease assets929 987 
Other noncurrent assets658 584 
$25,674 $24,815 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ (DEFICIT) EQUITY
Current liabilities
Current portion of long-term debt$553 $684 
Accounts payable738 746 
Accrued payroll and benefits1,390 1,299 
Liability for guest loyalty program3,328 3,314 
Accrued expenses and other1,753 1,296 
7,762 7,339 
Long-term debt 11,320 9,380 
Liability for guest loyalty program3,678 3,280 
Deferred tax liabilities209 313 
Deferred revenue1,018 1,059 
Operating lease liabilities887 1,034 
Other noncurrent liabilities1,482 1,842 
Stockholders’ (deficit) equity
Class A Common Stock5 5 
Additional paid-in-capital6,051 5,965 
Retained earnings14,838 12,342 
Treasury stock, at cost(20,929)(17,015)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(647)(729)
(682)568 
$25,674 $24,815 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Fiscal Years 2023, 2022, and 2021
(in millions)
 202320222021
OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net income$3,083 $2,358 $1,099 
Adjustments to reconcile to cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation, amortization, and other277 282 295 
Stock-based compensation205 192 182 
Income taxes(612)